Buying a flat, whether for personal use or as an investment, is a significant decision that involves considerable financial planning and market research. Potential buyers often face challenges in navigating the complex property market, understanding financial implications, and choosing a flat that meets their needs and budget. The process can be daunting, especially for first-time buyers or those unfamiliar with the ever-changing real estate landscape.

The Solution: Navigating the Flat Buying Process with Confidence

Imagine unlocking the door to a flat that not only meets your expectations but also aligns with your financial goals. This dream can be a reality with the right approach to purchasing a flat. The key is to combine thorough research, careful planning, and strategic decision-making.

Understanding the Market

Before diving into purchases, it’s essential to have a solid grasp of the current real estate market. Research the trends in property prices, demand fluctuations, and future projections in your desired location. This information can help you make an informed decision about when and where to buy.

Setting a Realistic Budget

Financial planning is crucial in the property buying process. Set a realistic budget that includes not only the purchase price but also additional costs such as stamp duty, legal fees, property taxes, and maintenance costs. Consider securing a mortgage pre-approval to understand how much you can borrow and to streamline the purchasing process.

Choosing the Right Location

The location of a flat significantly impacts its value and your quality of life. Consider factors like proximity to work, educational institutions, local amenities, transportation links, and the overall safety and appeal of the neighborhood. Future development plans in the area can also affect property values.

Assessing the Property

When viewing flats, pay attention to the layout, size, natural light, storage space, and overall condition. Don’t hesitate to ask about the building’s age, maintenance history, and any upcoming repairs or renovations. If the flat is part of a larger complex, inquire about service charges and any resident association rules.

Seeking Professional Advice

Enlisting the help of real estate professionals can be invaluable. A real estate agent familiar with your chosen area can provide insights into the best deals and neighborhoods. Additionally, hiring a solicitor or conveyancer to handle the legal aspects of the purchase can ensure a smooth transaction.

Considering Long-Term Value

If you’re buying a flat as an investment, consider its long-term rental potential and capital appreciation. Look for properties in areas with strong rental demand and the potential for property value growth.

Negotiating the Deal

Don’t be afraid to negotiate on price. The asking price is not always set in stone, and there may be room for negotiation, especially if you are well-informed about the market and the property.

The Importance of a Survey

Before finalizing the purchase, have the property professionally surveyed. This can uncover any structural problems or necessary repairs that could affect the value or future costs.


Conclusion: A Path to Your Ideal Flat

In conclusion, buying a flat is a journey that requires careful consideration and strategic planning. By understanding the market, setting a realistic budget, choosing the right location, and seeking professional advice, you can make a well-informed decision. Remember, purchasing a flat is not just a financial investment but a step towards a desired lifestyle and future. With the right approach, you can navigate the complexities of the property market and find a flat that meets both your needs and aspirations.v

The exterior of a building is more than just a protective shell; it’s the face it presents to the world. Over time, environmental elements, age, and wear and tear can leave building cladding looking tired and outdated. Replacing cladding is a costly and disruptive process, but there’s a more efficient solution that many property owners and managers often overlook: cladding spraying. The challenge lies in understanding the process and benefits of cladding spraying and how it can rejuvenate a building’s appearance effectively.

The Solution: Transforming Buildings with Cladding Spraying

Imagine giving your building a complete facelift with minimal disruption and at a fraction of the cost of replacement. Cladding spraying offers this opportunity, revitalizing the appearance of buildings with high-quality, durable finishes.

Understanding Cladding Spraying

Cladding spraying is the process of applying a new coat of paint to a building’s existing cladding. This isn’t just a simple paint job; it’s a specialized process using advanced materials and techniques to ensure a finish that not only looks great but also protects the cladding for years to come.

The Benefits of Cladding Spraying

  1. Cost-Effective: Cladding spraying is significantly cheaper than replacing entire cladding systems, offering a budget-friendly option for upgrading building exteriors.
  2. Time-Saving: The process is quick and efficient, causing minimal disruption to daily operations, making it ideal for commercial and industrial buildings.
  3. Aesthetic Improvement: A fresh coat of paint can dramatically improve a building’s appearance, boosting its curb appeal and potentially increasing its value.
  4. Extended Cladding Life: Quality spraying can protect cladding from weathering and corrosion, extending its lifespan and reducing future maintenance costs.
  5. Customization: Cladding spraying offers a wide range of colors and finishes, allowing building owners to customize their property’s appearance to match their branding or aesthetic preferences.

Choosing the Right Service Provider

Selecting a skilled and experienced cladding spraying contractor is crucial. Look for companies with a track record of successful projects, who use high-quality materials and offer warranties on their work.

The Process of Cladding Spraying

A typical cladding spraying project involves several key steps:

  1. Thorough cleaning of the cladding to remove dirt, grime, and old paint.
  2. Repairing any damage to the cladding.
  3. Application of primer, if necessary, for better paint adhesion.
  4. Spraying the cladding with specially formulated paint, usually in multiple coats.

Environmental Considerations

Many modern cladding paints are environmentally friendly, with low VOC (Volatile Organic Compounds) levels. Choosing an eco-conscious provider can minimize the environmental impact of your refurbishment project.

Maintenance After Spraying

Post-spraying, regular cleaning and occasional touch-ups can keep the cladding looking fresh and extend the life of the paint job.

Conclusion: A Smart Investment in Building Maintenance

In conclusion, cladding spraying is a smart, cost-effective solution for maintaining and enhancing the appearance of buildings. It provides a fresh, updated look with added protection to the existing cladding, making it an excellent investment for property owners looking to rejuvenate their buildings without the hefty price tag of full cladding replacement. With the right approach and service provider, cladding spraying can transform the exterior of any building, contributing positively to its aesthetics, longevity, and value.

In an era where digital advertising and communication dominate, selecting the best digital signage company is crucial for businesses looking to make a lasting impression. The market is flooded with numerous companies offering varied services, from hardware provision to content creation and management. The challenge lies in identifying a company that not only provides quality and innovative solutions but also aligns with your specific business needs and goals.

The Solution: A Guide to Selecting the Top Digital Signage Company

Imagine a digital signage partner that not only understands your business objectives but also enhances your customer engagement and brand presence. The key to this vision is a comprehensive approach to choosing the right digital signage company.

Understanding Your Needs

Before diving into the sea of digital signage providers, it’s important to understand your specific needs. Are you looking for indoor, outdoor, interactive, or mobile signage? What’s the scale of your project? Identifying your requirements helps in shortlisting companies that specialize in those areas.

Innovation and Technology

The best digital signage companies are at the forefront of technology. They offer the latest in screen resolutions, software capabilities, and integration solutions. Look for companies that are innovating, whether it’s through ultra-high-definition displays, advanced content management systems, or interactive and augmented reality features.

Content Creation and Management

Content is king in digital signage. The top companies provide not just hardware, but also robust content management solutions. They help in creating engaging, dynamic content that resonates with your target audience. Additionally, their platforms should offer ease of content scheduling, updating, and managing.

Customer Service and Support

Exceptional customer service is a hallmark of a great digital signage company. From the initial consultation to installation and post-installation support, their team should be responsive and helpful. Ongoing technical support is also crucial in ensuring your digital signage remains functional and effective.

Case Studies and Portfolios

A company’s past projects can provide valuable insights into their capabilities and expertise. Review their case studies and portfolios to see if they have experience in your industry or have tackled similar projects. Client testimonials and reviews can also shed light on their work ethic and customer satisfaction levels.

Cost Consideration

While cost should not be the only factor, it’s important to ensure you’re getting value for your investment. The best digital signage companies provide transparent pricing and can offer scalable solutions that fit your budget.

Sustainability and Eco-Friendliness

With increasing environmental awareness, consider companies that prioritize sustainability. This can include energy-efficient screens, eco-friendly manufacturing processes, and recyclable materials.

Customization and Scalability

Your business is unique, and your digital signage should reflect that. The top companies offer customizable solutions that can grow and evolve with your business. They should be able to adapt to changing business needs and scale up as required.

Conclusion: A Partner in Digital Signage Success

In conclusion, selecting the best New York Digital Signage company is a critical decision that can significantly impact your business’s visibility and customer engagement. By considering factors like technological innovation, content management, customer service, and sustainability, you can find a digital signage partner that not only meets your current needs but also supports your future growth and success. With the right company, digital signage becomes more than just advertising; it becomes a dynamic and integral part of your business’s communication and branding strategy.

Can you imagine a city without illuminated advertising? Imagine if at night it became dark, lit only by a few street lamps and cars, with no theatres, supermarkets, or restaurants shining; the streets dark, the buildings uniformly grey. The city would appear literally deserted. And perhaps it would be without light. Light signifies life. Where it’s dark, people prefer not to linger, except perhaps for sleep. However, light attracts. For many years, illuminated advertising has brought light to cities at night, providing orientation and transforming cities into spaces where life continues after dark.

The Beginnings of Illuminated Advertising People engaged in trade, selling goods and wanting to attract customers, have always tried to advertise. Whether in a simple manner as market criers or through information leaflets – people have tried to draw attention to their goods. Particularly in cities, various advertising mediums have developed. For a long time, for example, advertising columns were considered one of the most important advertising spaces in urban areas. Additionally, so-called “nose signs” shaped the facades of shops and inns. They were called “nose” because they stood out from the wall and protruded into the air. The typical brass pretzels at traditional bakeries or the boot in front of a cobbler’s shop are at least familiar to many of us from films. Outdoor advertising experienced a revolution with the introduction of illuminated advertising.

happy birthday neon sign

Various sources dispute when and where the first illuminated advertisement was installed in Germany. It was possibly in 1896 at Berlin’s Spittelmarkt for Malton wine. The first light advertising systems did not yet shine in colourful neon but were made of conventional light bulbs. At the time, this was a significant change and often involved a lot of effort. Thousands of small light bulbs and many kilometres of connecting cables were installed to advertise with illuminated signs. However, the development of illuminated advertising was repeatedly slowed down. During the First World War, it was banned for energy policy reasons. In the following Golden Twenties, it experienced a resurgence, only to be banned again during the Second World War due to blackout measures.

The Breakthrough of Illuminated Advertising With the end of the Second World War and the economic miracle of the 1950s, illuminated advertising left its dark times behind and experienced a breakthrough in Germany. Bright neon signs in bright, strong colours symbolised the spirit of new beginnings that overcame people after years of war and deprivation. Light advertising celebrated life and invited people into restaurants, cinemas, and shops. Greiner Advertising Technology also entered the business of illuminated advertising during this important phase. Since then, the industry has been constantly marked by changes, but hardly anyone thinks of banning this defining element of modern cities.

Illuminated Advertising in the Future Today, there is virtually nothing in advertising that doesn’t exist. Large illuminated boards are digitally controlled, changing their design by the minute, SMS campaigns send advertising directly to private mobile phones, and on social networks, we receive advertising suggestions based on our personal buying behaviour. Despite all these developments, no one is dismantling their illuminated advertising. Attractive outdoor advertising remains an essential part of a good advertising strategy. And with the right design and in the right light, illuminated advertising will continue to attract people in the future and bring life to cities.

Stainless steel 304 pipe fittings are widely used in various industries due to their excellent corrosion resistance, durability, and strength. These fittings are made from a specific type of stainless steel called 304, which is known for its excellent properties and suitability for use in a wide range of applications.

Stainless steel 304 pipe fittings are used in industries such as food processing, chemical processing, and petrochemicals, where the risk of corrosion and contamination is high. These fittings are used to connect pipes or equipment together, providing a secure, leak-proof connection that can withstand high temperatures and pressure.

Stainless steel 304 pipe fittings are available in different types, including elbow, tee, reducer, coupling, and nipple. Each type of fitting has its unique characteristics and applications. Elbow fittings are used to change the direction of a pipeline, while tee fittings are used to create a branch connection. Reducer fittings are used to connect pipes of different sizes, and coupling fittings are used to join two pipes together. Nipple fittings are used to extend a pipe or create a connection between two pipes.

Stainless steel 304 pipe fittings have several advantages over other materials. They offer excellent corrosion resistance, making them suitable for use in harsh environments. They are also durable and have a long service life, which means they require less maintenance and replacement. Additionally, stainless steel 304 pipe fittings are easy to clean and sterilize, making them ideal for use in the food processing industry.

In conclusion, stainless steel 304 pipe fittings are an excellent choice for industries that require a high level of corrosion resistance, durability, and safety. They are available in different types to suit various applications. Their use ensures that pipelines are safe and reliable, reducing the risk of accidents and downtime. The cost of stainless steel 304 pipe fittings may be higher than other materials, but the long-term benefits they offer make them a worthwhile investment.

There are different circumstances in which it may be necessary to use a service of this type, both for individuals and companies. Before sending a vehicle or any other type of goods, it is advisable to analyse them in depth.

Vehicle transport is a professional service offered by specialised operators who, depending on the client’s needs, use means of transport and qualified personnel to transfer one or more vehicles from one place to another.

The former, in fact, may need to have a car purchased from the dealer delivered to their home or to have their car delivered to a holiday location (in order to avoid the fatigue of many hours of driving). In addition, “professional” transport may be advisable, particularly to avoid damage, when transferring one or more vintage cars, or supercars, or when moving from a car park while the move is in progress.

As far as companies are concerned, when they turn to a specialised transporter, they need to move one or more vehicles, usually small commercial fleets of cars or light commercial vehicles.

In such cases, the ideal solution is transport by car carrier.

Car Shipping in Dubai

Transporting a car may seem like a simple operation, so much so that the cheapest solution is immediately chosen, but often the unexpected is not taken into account.

In many cases, damage to the vehicle can occur during transport, both to the bodywork (scratches, dents, etc.) and to the mechanics (suspension systems, braking system, etc.).

Before sending a vehicle to a holiday destination, for example, formalities must be completed.
For this reason, when you decide to carry out such an operation, you should contact professionals and companies with proven experience and expertise in the sector, with equipment and resources that meet your needs, to avoid unpleasant inconveniences.

However, there are small precautions that service users are advised to take in order to minimise the risk of finding themselves in unpleasant situations. Here is a detailed list:

Remove all accessories and valuables from the vehicle;
Check that the battery is charged and that the tyres are inflated;
Notify the transporter of any leaks;
If the vehicle is convertible, close the bonnet and secure it (It is also advisable to cover the roof of the car with a tarpaulin, securing it carefully, to better protect the car during the journey);
Switch off and deactivate the alarm systems.
What should be done before the carrier collects the vehicle?
To your advantage and that of the specialised transporters who will take over the delivery of the vehicle, the vehicle must be carefully prepared before the transport and regardless of the duration of the journey. It is therefore a good idea to pay attention to certain details in particular.

Washing the car
One essential thing to do before delivering the car to the carrier is to wash the car body thoroughly. You can do this on your own or with the help of a car wash. This is necessary to check the condition of the bodywork and to check for scratches or dents. The presence of these will be detected when the vehicle is picked up by the designated personnel.

Before delivering the car, it is therefore a good idea to ensure and check the condition of the exterior surfaces. It is advisable to take photographs that clearly show the condition of the car you intend to hand over to the operator. This will allow a quick assessment of the condition of the vehicle at the time of delivery and avoid disputes at the end of the transfer. In this respect, it is a good idea to take note of the conditions of carriage and, in particular, the agreements on liability in the event of damage to the goods being transported.

Empty the car
Another essential precaution is to remove any valuables from the passenger compartment or the boot. The carrier is not obliged to open and check the compartments of the vehicle to be transported, especially if they are closed or sealed. Consequently, he declines all responsibility for the customer’s personal effects inside the vehicle.

Before sending a vehicle, it is necessary to wash the car, empty it and prepare a copy of the documents.
Therefore, the advice is to put away all the items in the side drawers, dashboard, glove box and any other compartment inside the car.

The tank and documents
Although not exactly a requirement, it is recommended to deliver the car with the fuel tank almost empty. This will reduce the weight of the car, making both transport and loading and unloading easier. As far as the car’s documents are concerned (the vehicle registration document and the insurance sticker, if they are on display), there are two ways to do this.

The first is to leave them inside the car, possibly in a compartment that is difficult to access or locked. Alternatively, you can leave a copy of the documents in the car and keep the originals with you, so that you have them available at the time of delivery.

Of course, it is a good idea to check that the vehicle is in compliance with the insurance cover before it is collected by the carrier, as this is a prerequisite for the car to be transferred correctly.

The main modes of transport currently used in the world are air, sea and land. Each of them has specific characteristics that make it more suitable for some transports than for others.

Maritime transport: who stays on board the vehicle?
For several hundred years, sea transport has been one of the preferred cargo handling systems for import-export. Today, it is still one of the most popular transport systems for shipping large consignments of mainly commercial goods.

One of the advantages of organising shipments by ship is undoubtedly that of convenience. For this type of transport, in fact, special means are used (cargo ships) made for the sole purpose of transporting goods, in crates and containers.

A viable, but certainly more expensive, alternative to transporting vehicles on a car carrier is the possibility of transporting a vehicle by ship, especially if the destination is international or intercontinental.

Sea transport is suitable for non-perishable goods. In fact, it is generally true that it is a cheaper type of transport, but it is also slower. The time can vary from a few days to several months, depending on the distance and the resources involved.

While many have tried the experience of taking their car on a boat or ferry to the resort, perhaps few know that “unaccompanied” cars can also be taken.

Anyone who has had the experience of boarding a boat with their vehicle knows that it is also possible to board “accompanied vehicles”.
One positive aspect is that with this type of transport it is possible to move very large quantities of vehicles compared to land and air methods, which have much more limited possibilities. Increasing difficulties, on the other hand, are related to the possibility of finding, once the vehicles have arrived at the port of destination, an adequate network of connections with the hinterland. Therefore, relying on a company like Trasauto Logistica, which has been dealing with integrated logistics for more than forty years, allows you to take advantage of the dense network of relationships and partnerships that allow for fast and efficient connections between the various carriers.

In maritime transport, especially for short distances, the presence or absence of the driver plays an essential role. Thus, if, at the time of boarding, the driver of the vehicle remains on board, the transfer will be traced as a vehicle transfer. If, on the other hand, the car were to be loaded without a driver, the absence of the passenger would imply that the vehicle would be treated as ordinary goods.

The adoption of either solution will result in a difference in the calculation of transport tariffs in the presence of higher costs for the connection of means and resources to be used in the subsequent road transfer and for the journey to the terminal both for the day of departure and for the pick-up of the vehicle on arrival.

Other “safety” provisions also impose restrictions depending on the fuel system. Therefore, all LPG vehicles will be crammed into a special area of the ship. In order to contain and intervene quickly in case of accidents due to gas leaks.

Before sending a vehicle by air transport: advantages and disadvantages
When it comes to air transport, the big advantage is speed. A product, a commodity, can arrive at the other end of the world in a very short time, generally in a maximum of ten days, taking into account the technical organisation time.

Air transport can be defined as the flagship of the international transport sector. In fact, it is the safest type of transport (as the percentage of accidents is very low) and the fastest, as it allows large distances to be covered in a short time.

The use of air transport to send a vehicle can be motivated by strict deadlines.
Because of these characteristics, air transport is usually an express transport, i.e. goods that must arrive at their destination in the shortest possible time.

As with everything, however, even this most advanced mode of transport has its limits.

The first limitation is cost. In the logistics sector, speed and security have a price to pay and, more often than not, they are more than expensive. The use of air assets, the wide geographical coverage and the low accident rate determine the overall cost of the air freight service.

Therefore, before sending a vehicle using air freight, we recommend that you only use it if you have a proven need that requires you to meet a short and strict deadline or if you need to ship high value vehicles.

Overland transport: Immediate, flexible and for short distances
Overland transport is certainly the oldest, most flexible and most used for short distances. Especially in the 20th century, thanks to the speed and convenience of asphalt and the advent of motorways.

This type of transport has become ideal for short and medium distances and, compared to other types of transport, offers a “door-to-door” service. However, land transport can be the most tiring and expensive system if the recipient lives in a remote, hard-to-reach location.

Basically, it is recommended for short or relatively short journeys. It is not recommended if you have to transport a vehicle thousands of kilometres. Moreover, the efficiency of road transport systems ensures an ideal service even for small and large companies.

The only drawback, if it can be defined as such, of this type of delivery service is the greater risk of inconvenience. Indeed, by moving by road, shipments could be subject to force majeure phenomena more frequent than those that could occur with other transport systems, such as vehicle breakdowns, bad weather, road accidents.

Another limitation of land transport, which has arisen as a result of climate change and the measures implemented by governments, is the need to comply increasingly with established parameters in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

Road transport is the most flexible. It is ideal for short and medium distances and allows door-to-door delivery.
Therefore, before sending a vehicle by road, it is necessary to consider that this modality is currently also subject to these measures and for this reason it will gradually become more and more residual and limited.

How do you build up a company properly? First and foremost, it is important to understand which success factors are crucial in the initial phase of a business start-up and how the economic and psychological mechanisms behind it work.

For this reason, in this article we want to look at the most common mistakes made by start-ups and how best to avoid them.

  1. take advantage of support
    Starting a business on your own is a difficult task. There are so many things to think about and decide. Overextending yourself can quickly lead to wrong decisions, which in turn can set you back. Therefore, it is always advisable not to be on your own when starting a business. Help from friends and colleagues can be extremely helpful.

In addition, working on several tasks at the same time takes both time and energy. This often leads to losing focus. Therefore, it is helpful to prioritise tasks effectively and also to delegate them. This way you can concentrate on the important things.

2 Good planning is half the battle
The first step in starting a business is to develop a good business model. This serves as a guide and helps to set the direction of the business over a period of time. The business plan together with the financial and marketing plan helps startups answer the following questions:

What is the goal of the business? Who are the potential customers? What are the company’s mission and values? How can the company measure success?

In other words, a solid business plan determines almost all aspects of a startup.

nextexitfuture helps you find your way by reviewing your business model and, if necessary, using creative methods to think outside the box and develop new ideas. We support you in all essential processes (e.g. business plan preparation, organisational matters) and can also accompany you in the form of coaching.

  1. focus on goals
    In order to build up a business successfully, you need goals that you can tackle step by step. It is important that these goals have certain characteristics: They should be specific, measurable, attractive, realistic and timed (SMART). This helps to understand and identify where you want to go and outlines the specific steps needed to get there.

If you don’t have goals yet, the first step is to sit down and figure out exactly what you want to achieve. Once you have identified your goals, write down the criteria that you can use to make an informed decision about whether you have achieved that goal.

4 Working with KPIs
KPI is an abbreviation for “Key Performance Indicator”. This term refers to certain key performance indicators that reflect the performance of your business. If you spend time and money to improve your business but do not track what works and what does not, there is a high risk that your efforts will be in vain. Therefore, it is important to identify metrics that indicate you are moving in the right direction. The goals you choose will help you determine the right KPIs to look out for.

nextexitfuture can help you set up your KPI and improve operational excellence.

  1. time management
    We all understand the importance of planning and meeting deadlines. It is important to be practical and realistic in doing so. For example, following “Parkinson’s Law” can help. It says that every task takes as long as there is time available. This means that one should determine in advance how much time one wants to take for a certain task.

So the time limit is crucial and the deadline must not be pushed back. Based on these constraints, you and your team members need to decide what priorities should be set.

  1. best practices
    In your organisation, teams, systems and strategy need to be developed and built. Transparency is crucial in this process. This means breaking down silos, communicating effectively, testing and keeping track. Define processes so that everything runs smoothly. It is also necessary to document these processes to avoid misunderstandings.

The employees are the core in your company. Talented and motivated employees can have a significant positive impact on the success of the company.

nextexitfuture can accompany your company into the digital world – we work with innovative methods that allow each company to go its own way.

  1. know who your ideal customer is.
    Often a founder assumes that someone has a need for their product or service. However, the founder usually does not know themselves exactly who their target audience actually is.

So before starting a business, the target market should be clearly defined. This requires a proper investigation of the market. Research and check whether your offers are viable and attractive. When starting a business, both primary and secondary sources are helpful in identifying ideal clients and hiring the right talent to drive your vision.

The survey services of nextexitfuture can help you to segregate your target audience.

  1. analytics
    Talk to your customers – not engaging with your customers and simply guessing what they want from your business is slow suicide. You need to reach out to your customers and document their responses.

Set up detailed analytics – build a system that measures satisfaction and desires of your customers and evaluates them according to certain criteria. If your product has users, track things like daily active users, monthly active users, churn rate, button clicks, etc. It is important to track and understand the usage of your product / service.

  1. do not neglect any part of the business
    Building a business involves many activities such as marketing, sales, operations, delivery, etc. Businesses depend on continuity to function and make decisions. It is important to be active in all areas in parallel, not to think of it as a sequential process. Slowing down can lead to losing the potential customer and thus losing the customer to the competitor.

What is stock?
Stock is the total of all existing inventories of a company. In trade, this is the stock of goods; in production companies, it is the stock of raw materials and supplies, semi-finished and finished parts, as well as any merchandise that may be available.

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Inventory: Scope & Calculation
Stock is a central component in trading and production companies. It provides customers or production with the raw materials, goods or parts they need at all times and is therefore crucial for smooth processes.

Products that are located outside the company’s own premises can also count as inventory, provided that the transfer of risk has not yet taken place. This is particularly the case with floating, rolling and consigned goods. In terms of quantity, the stock is determined by stocktaking or the continuous notation of all receipts and issues.

Stock Availability

The monetary valuation can be carried out according to various procedures. Often the quantity of the existing stock is multiplied by the moving average value of the goods. From the point of view of the balance sheet, the stock is an inventory asset or current asset.

The stock level (in terms of quantity) and the stock value form the basis for calculating important warehouse ratios, which we also discuss in more detail in this guide.

What are minimum stock, reorder level and maximum stock?
To ensure the optimal availability of goods, three parameters are important in warehousing: the minimum stock level, the reorder level and the maximum stock level. Each of these values must be calculated sensibly, which can be done using formulas. Errors in the determination, on the other hand, can lead to either unavailability of goods or excess stock. Many ERP systems determine the values automatically and regularly on the basis of predefined framework conditions. In the following, we take a closer look at the definition.

Minimum stock
The minimum stock, which is also called safety stock, reserve stock or iron stock, has the task of compensating for unforeseen fluctuations in requirements or replenishment. In this way, the aim is to maintain ongoing operations, even if the following circumstances occur:

The supplier does not deliver on the scheduled date
The delivered quality does not meet the specifications
Production does not manufacture the required products on time
There is an unusual increase in demand
Shortages occur
The selection of the correct minimum stock level is basically based on the replenishment time (order initiation to goods receipt) and the average daily consumption, but must be sector-specific and based on own experience. In practice, the following formulas are recommended for orientation:

As a general formula for minimum stock:

Example: You consume 10 pieces of a good per day, the replenishment period is 5 days. Your minimum stock should be 1/3 of the consumption during the replenishment period according to the formula.

Minimum stock= 50/3=16.66 pieces

Of course, parameters such as delivery delays or excess consumption can be included in the calculation as required.

Reorder level
If the reorder level is fallen short of, this leads to the triggering of a purchase order, which is why this is also referred to as a reorder point. It has the task of triggering an order for goods in time enough without having to attack the minimum stock level. This in turn means that the minimum and reorder point parameters must be optimally coordinated with each other. Important variables for calculation here are also the consumption values and the replenishment lead time. The formula is as follows:

Example: A trading company sells 3 bottles of a red wine per day. The replenishment lead time is 10 days, the safety stock is 25.

Reorder level= 3 x 10+25=55 bottles of red wine

It follows from this: As soon as the stock falls below 55 bottles, new goods are reordered. Ideally, this is done by an ERP system in the form of an order proposal or direct generation of an order.

Maximum stock level
The main purpose of maximum stock, also called maximum stock, is to prevent unnecessarily high inventories. Thus, on the one hand, the limitation makes sense with regard to capital commitment (especially with expensive goods), and on the other hand, it may be absolutely necessary due to the available storage volume (large, bulky parts). The minimum stock is included in the calculation of the maximum stock. The formula is:

Maximum stock=minimum stock+optimal order quantity.

From this it can be deduced that the maximum stock should theoretically be chosen on the basis of the cost-optimal order quantity. In practice, however, this is not always possible, as it may result in too much capital being tied up or the storage capacity being exceeded. An automated calculation of the maximum stock level is therefore not always effective. If you set the parameter manually, however, you have to keep an eye on it and regularly adjust it to the current consumption values.

How can the optimal stock level be determined?
The optimal stock level must be the primary objective of the disposition and pursues the following goals:

Smooth operational flow
Low storage costs (capital commitment)
Cost-optimised procurement
Thus, several requirements are initially in conflict with each other, which is why it is necessary to find the ideal middle ground. To calculate this, you must first determine the optimal order quantity. A mathematical, relatively complex solution for this is provided by the so-called Andler formula:

Example: The annual demand for a product is 50,000 pieces, the ordering costs are 20 euros. The purchase price per unit is 5 euros and the inventory cost rate is 20 (%).

The optimal order quantity of the product is therefore around 2828 pieces.

Now you can calculate the optimal stock level using the following formula:

Optimal stock level= minimum stock level+optimal order quantity.

Example: If we assume a minimum stock of 46 pieces and the optimal order quantity of 2828 pieces determined above, the optimal stock is 2874 pieces (2828 + 46). With this stock quantity, all costs are optimised.

Warehouse ratios – meaning and application in practice
In warehousing there are various key figures with which you can determine the efficiency, security of supply as well as the importance of articles in relation to their consumption or their capital commitment. The most important warehouse ratios are presented below.

We have observed an increase in digital marketing influencers in recent years. Here, brands turn to influencers to reach more people, expand their reach, and build a larger and more reliable network of fans. To enable them to expand their reach, brands use various strategies to help them find specific individuals who have the ideal audience for their products and services. These connections also benefit the influencer, as they offer a better chance of entrepreneurship and numerous benefits, such as being recognised as an expert in your industry, as well as all kinds of financial and non-financial incentives. It’s a win-win situation for everyone.

People trust influencers 92% more than companies, according to surveys. This creates a business opportunity for marketers, as people’s trust in influencers can be transferred to their products or services. Customers are significantly more likely to believe a friend’s advice than a brand’s advertising.

Don’t be shocked if this is new to you. Let us help you! Having a digital influencer on your team can help you expand your reach and build trust in your brand. Here’s everything you need to know before you get started:

Digital influencers and what they mean
Influencers are usually those who have built a significant, engaged and active following on social media. They are the kind of people who can influence people’s beliefs and behaviour. They are experts in their field and have built strong relationships with their followers, based on mutual trust and two-way communication. The followers strive to be like the digital influencers, eat what they eat, wear what they wear, and buy what they buy. They are mostly on YouTube, Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, Snapchat, Pinterest, and other social media platforms.

You can bring your brand to the attention of a large audience if you have Digital Influencers by your side. Influencers are people who can help your business take advantage of social media sites like Snapchat and Pinterest. For example, Snapchat has 310M monthly active users who watch an estimated 10 billion videos a day. Another is Pinterest, which has more than 100M monthly active users.

All these features make influencers incredibly attractive for brands to partner with. On the one hand, brands gain access to customers who are already interested and inclined to buy. On the other hand, customers are more likely to trust a person rather than a brand if they feel they know that person personally and can interact with that person. As a result, brands today tend to pay a lot of money for targeted people to link their products or services to a favourable influencer.

Types of digital influencers that marketers should be aware of
Anyone on social media has the power to become an influencer. Celebrities like Kim Kardashian, Cristiano Ronaldo, Ellen DeGeneres, and others have been known as “influencers”. But not only the rich and famous can now be influencers, but also well-known bloggers, social media stars, and even ordinary consumers.

Influencers can be classified into three categories based on their reach:

These are people with fewer social media followers, usually thousands or tens of thousands. However, they have a higher engagement rate and a much more targeted audience. They are usually less expensive than superstars and more genuine, offering real things their audience can relate to. This influencer has the highest brand relevance and ability to drive desired action from their audience, based on personal experience with a brand and strong relationships with their following. This is best for conversions and engagement.

Banana Republic is an excellent example of using micro-influencers on Instagram for fashion and leisure. They work with men and women from SME companies to showcase their clothes in different contexts. Influencers provide topical content for Banana Republic and raise awareness among their followers in this way.

In total, Banana Republic ran 13 ads, which reached 43.2 million people. They not only increased brand awareness, but also got hundreds of images of their items at a low price.

Having the backing of a well-known macro-influencer can help you achieve significant results in a short period of time. They are rarely seen on the red carpet, but they may have millions of social media followers and are well-known in their field. They may be CEOs, journalists, or bloggers, and are often recognised as thought leaders in the industry. The higher the cost of working with an influencer, the more followers they have. You can make the most of them to increase brand awareness and engagement.

The partnership between Becca and Jaclyn Hill is an excellent illustration of this. Becca is an Australian cosmetics company, founded in 2001, with products launched in more than 36 countries by 2012. Estée Lauder bought Becca in 2016, yet the company continues to grow through influencer marketing.

Their partnership with YouTube star and digital macro-influencer Jaclyn Hill helped the company achieve massive growth and brand awareness. They collaborated on Champagne Pop, a limited-edition highlighter that gained immediate traction and became Sephora’s bestseller on the day of its debut.

These are social media superstars with a following of more than a million people. They have the most engagement and reach per post. Although, all this comes at a cost, and usually only the biggest brands in the industry can afford it. Mega-influencers are generally not that influential, especially if the goal of your campaign is conversions, as they have the slightest potential to drive audiences to the necessary action. It is best to build brand awareness and make first impressions.

To beat its main competitors, Adidas created an influencer-driven social media marketing strategy. The hashtag #MyNeoShoot was used to generate user-created content for the youth-focused campaign.

Adidas leveraged Selena Gomez’s social impact and celebrity status to call on fans to submit photos of themselves wearing Adidas merchandise.

The said campaign was a huge success, with more than 12k submissions and 71k hashtag mentions of #MyNeoShoot. Adidas saw a sales increase of 24.2 per cent, while Nike saw a sales dip of 9.1 per cent.

Finding the right influencers to target is one of the most challenging aspects of setting up an influencer marketing campaign. In many circumstances, the temptation is to go for the big names because they have the biggest audience and clout. However, it is more important to discover the right fit. It’s not just about the size of your audience; it’s also about how interested and targeted they are. Know that the more followers an influencer has, the more brand visibility you will gain, but the conversion rate will generally be lower.

Find the right influencer for your brand
It is time to choose an influencer who is a good fit for your brand, once you have made a decision and settled on the type you want to engage with. Several aspects, including your target audience, can help you determine how beneficial an influencer would be.

Demographics and engagement of followers
Followers and how likely they are to like, comment on or share your selected influencer’s posts are all part of post engagement. Do they reply, inform, or start a conversation? The greater the connections between the influencer and his followers, the more engaged the audience is. Go for someone who interacts with the audience rather than just pushing things.

You should also aim to find an influencer with followers similar to your target audience in age and gender. As a result, you should first find out who your average customer or client is and then choose an influencer with followers who fit that character.

Relevance of content
It is crucial to find an influencer whose followers are of the same age and gender as your target audience, as well as how closely the influencer’s material matches your business. Your brand will suffer if the influencer’s niche has nothing to do with yours. You need to make sure that the content your influencer delivers is consistent with your brand’s mission.

Will the material the influencer delivers be attractive to your target audience? Who is most effective at attracting and retaining your target audience? Who is popular in your industry on Twitter? If you advertise exotic holidays, for example, look for an influencer who tells stories about his travels around the world, posts videos of his adventures, and generally promotes the pleasant life we all desire.

The importance of authenticity cannot be overstated. As a business, you need an honest influencer who speaks from personal experience to develop brand loyalty and trust. Someone who is not just trying to increase sales because they are compensated, but who is genuinely interested in helping others by delivering value. You need an influencer who can tell memorable and engaging stories that matter to your target audience.

Would you trust an influencer’s recommendation? More shares and responses are generated by engaging stories than by simple discounts or product review. It is sometimes made too clear to users when something is sponsored. This quickly tarnishes the reputation and trustworthiness of the influencer and looks more like traditional advertising than influencer marketing. Allow your influencer’s individuality without giving too much direction, as this will make the content seem less authentic. Maintain the integrity of your brand, but don’t let influencers say things they don’t believe. You don’t want your followers to see it as outright advertising.

Influencer marketing has proven to be a very efficient way for brands to reach and engage with their target audiences on social media. Influencers and their genuine content help brands capture consumers’ attention and earn their support. Influencer marketing benefits both your brand and the influencers. It’s about give and take, so don’t approach influencers just to take. You need to provide value to your influencers in return and build good relationships. That way, you get a win-win scenario.

  1. Plan your layout: Before you start printing your booklet, take some time to plan out your layout. Decide on the number of pages, the size of the booklet, and the layout of each page. This will help ensure that your booklet looks professional and organized.
  2. Use high-quality paper: Using high-quality paper can make a big difference in the final appearance of your booklet. Look for paper that is thick and has a nice finish, such as glossy or matte.
  3. Choose the right font: Different fonts can convey different tones and moods in your booklet. Choose a font that is easy to read and professional-looking.
  4. Use margins wisely: Proper use of margins can help make your booklet look more organized and polished. Make sure to use sufficient margins to allow for easy reading and to give your booklet a balanced look.
  5. Use headings and subheadings: Headings and subheadings can help break up text and make your booklet easier to read and navigate. Use different font sizes and styles to differentiate between different levels of headings.
  6. Avoid using too many fonts: Using too many different fonts in one booklet can make it look cluttered and unprofessional. Stick to one or two fonts for the body of your booklet and save others for headings and special emphasis.
  7. Use bullet points and numbered lists: Bullet points and numbered lists can help break up long blocks of text and make your booklet easier to read. They also help to emphasize important points.
  8. Use white space effectively: White space, or empty space on the page, can help to give your booklet a clean and organized look. Don’t be afraid to leave some space between paragraphs or around headings.
  9. Use images and graphics wisely: Images and graphics can add visual interest to your booklet, but be sure to use them wisely. Avoid using too many images or graphics, as they can distract from the content of your booklet.
  10. Use a consistent layout: A consistent layout can help make your booklet look professional and polished. Use the same margins, font sizes, and styles throughout your booklet.
  11. Check for spelling and grammar errors: It’s important to proofread your booklet carefully to catch any spelling or grammar errors. Using a spelling and grammar checker can also be helpful.
  12. Use print preview: Before you print your booklet, use the print preview feature to see how it will look on the page. This can help you catch any formatting issues or mistakes before you waste ink and paper.
  13. Use duplex printing: Duplex printing allows you to print on both sides of the page, saving paper and reducing waste. Check your printer’s settings to see if it has this feature.
  14. Use watermarks: Watermarks are faint images or text that appear behind the main content of a booklet. They can be used to indicate the status or confidentiality of a booklet, or to add a decorative touch.
  15. Print a test page: Before you print a large number of copies, it’s a good idea to print a test page to make sure everything looks correct. This can save you time and resources by allowing you to catch any mistakes before printing the full booklet.

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